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Numerical Challenges occurs in SIMP based Topology Optimization

A) Checkerboard Pattern: a) Checkerboarding refers to the formation of alternate solid and void elements in the final topologically optimized structure and possesses artificial high stiffness to the numerical model. b) This issue is primarily due to the discretization error of the numerical FE model. c) It occurs mainly in those models which have been […]

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Mesh refinement in Topology Optimization

Mesh refinement or discretization is a fundamental step in finite element analysis. In finite element analysis, the refinement of mesh is done only in those areas that are of interest (eg: the region of high stress in the stress analysis) so that to obtain good accuracy with minimum computational efforts. However, in the context of […]

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Size, Shape and Topology Optimization

Structural optimization is determining the best possible material distribution within a physical volume domain to transmit the applied load safely. To achieve this, the constraints imposed by the manufacturer and eventual use must also be considered. These may include increasing stiffness (increasing strain energy or minimizing compliance), minimizing stress levels, minimizing displacement, altering the fundamental […]

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Generating G-code using Fusion-360

I recently tried to use the Carvey machine to carve a geometry for the project on the Caustic phenomenon. But, the problem started when I realized that only vector format files or G-code could be imported to carry on the operation in that machine. Since the 3D geometry file can’t be converted into a vector […]

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Maxwell’s Equations

This post is about Modified Maxwell’s equations for EM wave propagation. We will see how Electric field and Magnetic field depends on each other . Maxwell’s Equation in static field Maxwell’s equations explain, the basic behavior of EM fields at every point (Microscopic form) and also over a region (Macroscopic form). Maxwell’ Equation in Static […]

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Propagation Nature Of Electric Field And Magnetic Field

This post is about irrotational and solenoidal behavior of Electric field and Magnetic field respectively which is also explain Maxwell’s second and fourth equation. Closed line integral (MAXWELL’S SECOND EQUATION) $\oint \vec{E} \cdot \vec{dl}=0$ Potential difference can exit between two different and distinct points but with the same point, it is always zero. Potential is […]

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Nonlinearities in Structure

When the force-displacement relation of the system is linear, then that particular type of system is named as “linear system.” The simplest example of such a system is mass-spring mechanical assembly. In this mechanical system, the stiffness of a spring remains constant. But in real-world problems, the stiffness of a system is not linear; however, it may be idealized […]

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Basics Of Electromagnetic Theory

This post is about basic idea of Electro-magnetic theory. This post cover what is Electric field, magnetic field , how it propagate and what is strength of Electric field and magnetic field which is explained by Gauss Law and Amperes Law respectively. It also includes some idea about Gauss divergence theorem, Stocks theorem, permittivity and […]

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Carving on Acrylic sheet using CNC-machine

Carving is a subtractive manufacturing/machining process in which the tool scrapes out the material from the workpiece to generate the desired shape object. The process has been here for centuries; sculptures made of stone or paintings inside the caves are examples. Advancement in Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) has modernized the traditional carving process. Nowadays, Computerized Numerical […]

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Norm and condition number of a matrix

In a numerical analysis with a vector involvement, norms are essential to predict the various errors involved in the numerical analysis. A norm is a function ||.|| in a vector space V. If A is a n*n matrix, then its norm is a real number and denoted by ||A||. A norm satisfies the following properties: […]

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