# Blog

### Uncertainities in Topology Optimization

Various types of uncertainties are considered in the topology optimization, like uncertainty in loading, geometry and material properties, etc. Two methods account for the uncertainties in the topology optimization framework. They are- 1. Probabilistic based methods (Statistical or reliability-based methods) 2. Non-probabilistic based methods The traditional approach to account for the uncertainties in the structure […]

### Extrude 2D geometry to 3D geometry in Comsol

Select 2D space dimension and select specific physics. Model some 2D geometry under Geometry 1 tab. Now, go to add component option under Home Tab and click on 3D. Right click on Geometry 2 and click on work plane. Work Plane 1 option now appears under Geometry 2 button and Plane Geometry option now appears […]

### Explicit Dynamic Analysis

Need for explicit dynamic analysis Implicit and explicit are the two main types of time integration methods that are used to perform dynamic simulations. The explicit time integration is more efficient for the following situations- 1. To simulate the buckling and complex contact problem. 2. To model material deformation and failure at a high strain […]

### Architected Materials: Metamaterials

Metamaterials are those materials that are not found in nature and are artificially manufactured materials. The properties of such materials are derived from their internal microstructure (geometrical configuration) and not from their chemical composition. The concept of metamaterials was initially coined in the context of optics and electromagnetism. The properties of the metamaterials on the […]

### Numerical Challenges occurs in SIMP based Topology Optimization

A) Checkerboard Pattern: a) Checkerboarding refers to the formation of alternate solid and void elements in the final topologically optimized structure and possesses artificial high stiffness to the numerical model. b) This issue is primarily due to the discretization error of the numerical FE model. c) It occurs mainly in those models which have been […]

### Mesh refinement in Topology Optimization

Mesh refinement or discretization is a fundamental step in finite element analysis. In finite element analysis, the refinement of mesh is done only in those areas that are of interest (eg: the region of high stress in the stress analysis) so that to obtain good accuracy with minimum computational efforts. However, in the context of […]

### Size, Shape and Topology Optimization

Structural optimization is determining the best possible material distribution within a physical volume domain to transmit the applied load safely. To achieve this, the constraints imposed by the manufacturer and eventual use must also be considered. These may include increasing stiffness (increasing strain energy or minimizing compliance), minimizing stress levels, minimizing displacement, altering the fundamental […]

### Generating G-code using Fusion-360

I recently tried to use the Carvey machine to carve a geometry for the project on the Caustic phenomenon. But, the problem started when I realized that only vector format files or G-code could be imported to carry on the operation in that machine. Since the 3D geometry file can’t be converted into a vector […]

### Maxwell’s Equations

This post is about Modified Maxwell’s equations for EM wave propagation. We will see how Electric field and Magnetic field depends on each other . Maxwell’s Equation in static field Maxwell’s equations explain, the basic behavior of EM fields at every point (Microscopic form) and also over a region (Macroscopic form). Maxwell’ Equation in Static […]

### Propagation Nature Of Electric Field And Magnetic Field

This post is about irrotational and solenoidal behavior of Electric field and Magnetic field respectively which is also explain Maxwell’s second and fourth equation. Closed line integral (MAXWELL’S SECOND EQUATION) $\oint \vec{E} \cdot \vec{dl}=0$ Potential difference can exit between two different and distinct points but with the same point, it is always zero. Potential is […]