# Archives

### Mesh refinement in Topology Optimization

Mesh refinement or discretization is a fundamental step in finite element analysis. In finite element analysis, the refinement of mesh is done only in those areas that are of interest (eg: the region of high stress in the stress analysis) so that to obtain good accuracy with minimum computational efforts. However, in the context of […]

### Size, Shape and Topology Optimization

Structural optimization is determining the best possible material distribution within a physical volume domain to transmit the applied load safely. To achieve this, the constraints imposed by the manufacturer and eventual use must also be considered. These may include increasing stiffness (increasing strain energy or minimizing compliance), minimizing stress levels, minimizing displacement, altering the fundamental […]

### Dolfin-x: An upgraded version of Dolfin

FEniCSx is the new version of FEniCS that is currently actively developed. Dolfin-x is the computational environment of FEniCS and implements the FEniCS problem-solving environment in Python and C++. New features in Dolfin-x in addition to existing features of Dolfin include: Variational formulations with complex numbers support Support for quadrilateral and hexahedral elements Higher-order […]

### IGA 2: Computational Geometries /Mathematical Preliminaries

This post will deal with the fundamental difference in mathematics behind both FEM and CAD.

### Built-in meshes in FEniCS

In FEniCS, we can either work with the inbuilt meshes or we can also import the mesh file generated in another pre-processing tool as a xdmf format. In order to create inbuilt meshes, firstly, dolfin module is imported as: Matplotlib library is used to display the mesh plots. The different types of inbuilt meshes in […]

### Boundary conditions in FEniCS

Boundary conditions (B.C.) are constraints necessary for the solution of a boundary value problem. A boundary value problem is a differential equation (or system of differential equations) to be solved in a domain on whose boundary a set of conditions is known. Boundary value problems are extremely important as they model a vast amount of […]

### IGA 1: Why Isogeometric Analysis ?

Here I am trying to present an intuitive understanding about the need, importance and purpose of Isogeometric Analysis (IGA), which was developed in 2005 as an alternate/extension of classical FEM.